24 листопада 2017 року в конференц-центрі м. Катовіце (Польща) пройшла 3-я міжнародна наукова конференція "Дилеми наукових досліджень у різних галузях науки",  в якої прийняли участь д-р екон. наук. Драчук Юрій Захарович і докторант ІЕП, канд. техн. наук Сав'юк Лариса Олександрівна.

Розділи конференції:
- природничі науки,
- наука і технології
- економічні та соціальні науки,
- гуманітарні науки.

Оргкомітет конференції:
Д-р Моніка Яворска
Голова Організаційного комітету міжнародного співробітництва / Регіональний директор Академії соціальних наук, професор Міжнародної академії
Малгожата Смоларек
Заступник голови оргкомітету з міжнародного співробітництва / заступник декану факультету прикладних наук.

Презентація "TO METHODOLOGY OF STUDYING ECONOMICS IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL STAFF: EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE"

 

 

Стаття

TO METHODOLOGY OF STUDYING ECONOMICS IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL STAFF: EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE

 

Yurii Drachuk1

1 National Technical University of Ukraine

"Kyiv Polytechnic Institute named Igor Sikorsky"

(Ukraine, Kyiv)

E-mail address:  drachuk.yuriy@gmail.com

Larysa Savyuk2

2 Institute of Industrial Economics, NAS of Ukraine (Ukraine, Kyiv)

E-mail address:  novicecuratorslo@gmail.com  

Моніка Яворська3

3 Social Academy of Sciences (Poland, Krakow)

E-mail address:  mjaworska@spoleczna.pl

 

ABSTRACT

The contemporary world trends of higher economic education in the perspective of general economic trends are considered. The influence on the methodology of studying the disciplines of economic direction of innovative methodological approaches, methods and learning algorithms, modern information and communication technologies and mixed learning tools has been studied. It is proved that the given approach to the change of methodology of teaching of fundamental and applied disciplines can increase the competence of graduates of higher educational institutions of economic profile, their competitiveness in the labor market, and the universities themselves to achieve the status of educational institutions with added academic value. Particularly important, these processes are acquired under conditions of cross-border knowledge transfer, which is considered as innovation in the field of intellectual investment.

 

Keywords:

methodology, higher education institute

on, information and communication technologies, mixed learning, competency, competitiveness, innovation, investment, knowledge transfer, added academic value

 

 

1.  INTRODUCTION              

 

In the context of global economic trends, specialists with an unconventional economic education are becoming increasingly important, which can include sales managers, HR managers, advertising and PR managers, and marketers. Even the preparation of economists and financiers of the banking sector who continue to rank first in demand ratings in the world and national labor markets requires innovative approaches and tools to raise their skills and competencies to the level of today's competitive specialist

The urgent task is to study and compare the experience of the best approaches in developing the methodology of teaching disciplines of economic orientation in the European market of educational services and knowledge. This methodology should be supported by the use of practical tools for its implementation. Such studies are able to consolidate the active processes of forming a transboundary transfer of knowledge in the European educational space and increase the competitiveness of European universities to the level of educational institutions with added academic value. Particular importance of this problem is for the Ukrainian higher educational institutions of the economic direction of training specialists in the conditions of political and economic instability and the crisis of the domestic system of higher education.

 

2.      An analysis of the application of innovative approaches to the methodology of teaching economic disciplines

It is necessary to formulate a general concept on possible ways to improve the methodology of teaching economic disciplines in Ukrainian higher education institutions, universities in Poland and other European countries. To do this, it is necessary to conduct a comparative analysis of this problem and identify the best trends in the processes of innovation in the provision of educational services for future specialists in economic specialties.

 

2.1. The state of the problem in the global world and European educational space

In general, Europe and the world have created worldwide educational services and knowledge markets, including the use of intellectual property innovations such as knowledge transfer. The term "knowledge transfer" in the European educational space means the transfer of technology developed at an educational institution or other research body for various industries and national economic complex of the country [1]. This innovative process leads to the emergence of institutional structures called knowledge transfer centers, which should ensure the smooth functioning of the investment system and the innovative development of economic structures at different levels through the organization of intellectual investment.

The Center for Knowledge Transfer links the main partners - companies, organizations, universities, laboratories for research and development, consultants, regional and local authorities to a common structure. The Center provides opportunities for an enterprise or organization to acquire knowledge that is not in their possession or whose development requires high labor, time and resources.

The main goals of higher educational institutions and research organizations in the transfer of knowledge are:

- promoting the commercialization of scientific research results;

- remuneration, preservation and selection of professors;

- the establishment of close ties with the branches of industry;

- the formation of income and the promotion of the economic growth of their institution and the state as a whole.

It is clear that the realization of these goals is impossible without radical and qualitative changes in approaches to teaching and methodology of training future specialists in all areas of training, including economic specialties.

In addition, with the introduction of the European universities' daily functioning of the principles of the Bologna Process, the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) system has become very important. The ECTS system has been introduced in Europe since 1989 and since then has been tested through pilot projects and has been refined in 145 European universities. It provides the opportunity to support students' mobility within participating countries, provides mutual recognition of student achievements during periods of study at different universities (and even in different countries). The ECTS system allows you to accumulate student achievement in terms of choosing your own trajectory and learning pace. Finally, ECTS is a mandatory European Bologna process standard from the university's name in the Italian city of Bologna, where such initiatives were initiated [2, 3].

The Bologna process is, first of all, connected with the unification of Europe, its spread to the east and into the Baltic countries, accompanied by the formation of a common educational and scientific space and the development of common criteria and standards in this area. the scale of the whole continent. The integration process in science and education has two components: the formation of a community of leading European universities under the auspices of a document called Magna Charta University and the unification of national education and science systems into European space with common requirements, criteria and standards. The main objective of this process is to consolidate the efforts of the academic and educational community and governments of Europe to significantly increase the competitiveness of the European system of science and higher education in a global dimension, as well as to enhance the role of this system in social transformations [4]. The acknowledged fact is that over the past 15-20 years, the European education system is significantly inferior to the United States system by many qualitative indicators.

Under the "technological way" of society understood a set of related industries that are synchronously developing and have the same technical level. Electronics, programming, communications, and robotics complement each other and form the fifth technological innovation, built by the innovations of the 1970s, which today have become an integral part of our lives. In 2010, the sixth technological process - the era of nanotechnologies and cell technologies that reduces energy intensity and material production - opens up new opportunities for controlling the properties of materials and organisms [5].

In addition, according to the World Economic Forum (WEF), by 2020, the number of jobs created by developed countries in 5.1 million positions will lagged behind the number of abbreviations and the recent forecast for world development by 2035 from the National Intelligence Council of the United States throughout the penetration of the innovation theme. Therefore, progressive countries are persistently stimulating creative activity, because they are two-year-olds resistant to automation. For example, Britain plans to create 1 million creative jobs over the next thirteen years. The dissemination of new technologies requires specialists with special complex knowledge and skills, unusual shorter staffing. This will increase the economic gap between highly skilled and low-skilled graduates.

It should be noted, however, that a person possessing economic knowledge could be not only a hired employee, but also a successful manager, including his own company. At the state level, without knowledge of basic economic laws, a specialist cannot effectively and efficiently conduct business negotiations and be a worthy competitor. Specialists in the field of economic training, after graduation, have a chance to realize their professional knowledge and intellect in any field of professional activity - political, pedagogical, technical, agrarian, and medical. In addition, knowledge of the field of economic sciences increases the applicant's opportunities in commercial activity [6], that is, it can compete with the player in the labor market under the conditions of the sixth technological structure of the world society.

Abroad, for the training of specialists in the creative economic profile, a special technology of training is used, which is called the game of fiction. This technology helps to better involve students in the educational process and is used to some extent in many leading universities of the world today. When using the game of fiction there is a mass inclusion in the training courses of games and simulators. This technology is actively used, for example, in the preparation of sales managers. Basic education of such a specialist may be economic, technical, and philological. The main competence and skill of the sales manager should be communicative, that is, quality that cannot be taught by traditional methods and means [7].

Thus, the importance of resolving issues concerning the development of a unified consolidated methodology, methods, innovative algorithms and tools for the training of specialists in economic specialties remains a prerequisite for the economic prosperity of the countries of the European Community and its future full members. Ukraine also aspires to become a full member of the European Union and today must solve these important problems.

 

 

2.2 Methodological innovations in the training of specialists in the economic universities of Poland

A network of universities represents the system of economic education in Poland. The most famous and significant is the University of Economic Poznan (UEP). The university was founded in 1926 and is one of the oldest universities in Poland. Outside of this, this university is included in the elite of Polish state economic universities and, above all, is famous for its research activities. The university's reputation is confirmed by consistently high positions in the ratings. The University of Economics of Poznan is among the top three economic universities in Poland because of the quality of the teaching staff. Many UEP professors are invited to lecture at various universities around the world and is the only university in Poland with full academic rights in economics, management and commodity management, then there are not only bachelor's and master's degrees, but also candidates of sciences, professors, and doctors of sciences [8].

UEP is one of the state universities that rely on internationalization, which enables international students to study also in English under the International Business program. When teaching in Polish, there is a choice from a wide range of specializations in the following faculties: Economics, International Economics, Economics in Information Technology, Commodity Management and Management. Like any high-level university, UEP has a lot of accreditations and certificates in its assets.

The main goal of any education in Poland can be boldly called job search and further career growth. Polish youth and foreign entrants not only successfully enter the chosen university, but also receive comprehensive support in building their professional career from the first school day.

The Poles are a young nation. More than 50% of the population are young people under 35 years old. Ambitions of modern youth are such that they can be satisfied only by providing the highest level of education. Polish universities, both public and private, are actively using the age and preferences of the Poles in providing educational services throughout their lives. Now services in the field of higher education in Poland are in 450 universities, about 320 of which are private. To enter the Polish university is more than realistic, for every potential student there is a tough competitive struggle.

The prices for studying at universities are restrained. Also remain at an affordable level. The internal infrastructure of higher education institutions is constantly improving, professors from leading European universities are attracted to the teaching staff, exchange programs are being developed, and scholarships are being considered. In higher education institutions there are departments of adaptation for foreigners, student hostels are equipped. In comfortable and civilized conditions, learning brings pleasure, stimulates the student's current abilities and helps to discover new talents and interests. In conditions of fair competition between Polish universities, the opportunity to obtain a quality European education becomes a reality.

This is an unquestionable incentive for improving the quality of Polish higher education as a whole.

2.3 Methodology and innovations in the learning of specialists in the field of economic training in Ukraine

Higher education in Ukraine reflects the purpose and objectives of society, it is conditioned by the laws of the development of society and expresses the policy of the state, the needs of social development in the field of education and training of specialists of higher qualification. In the system of higher education, the state policy, the level of economy and culture, national peculiarities of the Ukrainian people and its traditions are manifested itself [9].

From a structural and functional point of view, the higher education system (SНE) of Ukraine is a set of higher education institutions (HEIs) providing fundamental scientific, professional and practical training. SHE provides citizens with education and qualification levels in accordance with their vocations, interests and abilities.

To the important task of domestic researchers, scientists and practitioners at this time should be combined efforts to ensure the accelerated implementation of the reform of the SHE, the internal and external quality of education. The fulfillment of such a task should increase the competitiveness and prestige of the National Universities in the European knowledge market. It will reduce the outflow of potential entrants beyond our country and increase the competence of graduates of educational institutions in a number of areas of training [10].

The discussion of the prospects for the development and transformation of education takes place on the portals of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, "The Main Legal Portal of Ukraine", the portal of the "Decentralization of Power" initiative, the portal of  NGO the Center for the International Projects "Eurovision". Ukraine is steadily moving towards democracy and publicity. This allows scientists, activists, specialists in the fields of knowledge and civil society to act as a common front to assist in the processes of reforming and improving the SHE. In this case, SHE acts as an instrument for the stable development, economic independence and prosperity of Ukraine.

In analyzing the prospects for the positive impact of the reforms of the SHE of Ukraine on its further development, the experience of European countries and other countries in the field of carrying out similar reforms is used. This is set out in the memoranda and joint legislative documents of the participants in the Bologna Process, as well as the European Commission, the Council of Europe, the European Center for Higher Education UNESCO, the Association of European Universities, the European Association of Higher Education Institutions, the European Student Union, the European Association for the Quality Assurance of Higher Education [11, 12 ].

The educational reform model belongs to the model of decentralization of the higher education system in the order of Ukrainian politics. The fundamental foundation of this reform is the expansion of university autonomy and the decentralization of the management of the SHE of Ukraine.

The new Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education" [13] establishes the basic legal, organizational, financial principles of the functioning of the higher education system. The new Law creates conditions for strengthening cooperation between state bodies and business with institutions of higher education on the principles of autonomy of higher education institutions. Conditions are created for combining education with science and production in order to prepare a competitive human capital for high-tech and innovative development of the country, self-realization of the individual, ensuring the needs of the society, the labor market and the state in the qualified specialists.

The bill stipulates the level of normative regulation in the education system for the central executive authority, which ensures the formation and implementation of state policy in the field of education with a view to decentralizing governance in the education system and identifying the powers of the united territorial communities regarding education in the context of decentralization reform.

However, there is no need to take into account the world experience of reforms in the decentralization of education management, including SHE. A detailed analysis of such experience and existing models of decentralization of SHE will avoid mistakes and mistakes in the process of reforming the SHE and create an own model of decentralization on the platform of the best experience of foreign SHE.

 

 

 

3.  CONCLUSIONS                

The following conclusions can be drawn:

1. Methodological fundamentals of teaching economic disciplines must be rebuilt on the innovative platform of modern pedagogical theories, ICT and blended learning tools.

2. Innovations in the field of methodological approaches in the teaching of economic disciplines should be supported by restructuring the organizational and infrastructural foundations of a higher education institution.

3. Association of European education, based on educational loans and transfer of knowledge requires national education systems and their representative’s adoption of common solutions in improving the quality of educational services and educational institutions competitive in the global labor market.

 

References            

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[4 Європейська система трансферу кредитів ECTS [Електронний ресурс] // Офіційний Веб-сайт Ніжинського державного університету ім. М. Гоголя. – 2017. – Режим доступу до ресурсу: http://www.ndu.edu.ua/index.php/ua/vstypnukam/informatsijnij-paket-ects.

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[9] Фіцула М. Педагогіка вищої школи: Навч. посіб. / М.М. Фіцула. – Київ: «Академвидав», 2006. – 352 с.

[10]  Сав'юк Л.О. Розвиток та трансформування системи вищої освіти в умовах децентралізації в Україні / Сав'юк Л.О.. // М-во освіти і науки України; Міжнар. гум. ун-т, Нац. гірн. ун-т. – Дніпропетровськ.:. – 2016. – С. 16–31.

[11]  Пашков В. Сутність та основні моделі децентралізації управління вищою освітою в зарубіжних країнах та в Україні / В. Пашков. // Порівняльно-педагогічні студії. – 2014. – №1(19). – С. 81–91.

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[13] Закон України Про вищу освіту (Відомості Верховної Ради (ВВР), 2014, № 37-38, ст.2004) [Електронний ресурс] // Відомості Верховної Ради (ВВР), № 2145-VIII від 05.09.2017, ВВР, 2017, № 38-39, ст.380). – 2017. – Режим доступу до ресурсу: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/en/1556-18.

 

 

 

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